What is Electrical Breaking | Types of Braking in a DC Motor

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Hello friends, in today’s article we will see what is electrical breaking and how it works and how many types it has.

The electrical braking system is commonly used in such motors to stop the motor-driven unit at a certain place and to control it properly while reducing the speed of the unit.

This is used in places where frequent fast, accurate, or emergency stops are required. Electrical breaking easily stops the motor without causing any inconvenience to the passenger.

Electrical braking controls the speed of the motor when the load on the host is reduced. Otherwise, the speed of the motor or unit can definitely put you in trouble. When a train descends a slope, the electrical breaking properly controls its speed and moves at the right speed.

Electrical braking is more used where the active load is used. Braking force can also be obtained by using a mechanical brake, even if it is electrically breaking.

Disadvantages of Mechanical Braking

It needs excessive maintenance. After some time, brake shoes have to be changed.

Braking power is wasted in the form of heat.

Despite such non-advantages, the system is used in conjunction with electric braking to ensure the reliable operation of the drive. It is also used to hold the drive as many breaking methods do not generate torque at a steady state.

Types of Electrical Braking

There are 3 types of breaking.

1.Regenerative Braking.
2.Dynamic Braking Or Rheostat Braking.
3. Plugging or Reverse Current Braking.

1.Regenerative Braking

This is a type of braking system in which the kinetic energy is returned to the power supply system. This is possible when the motor is powered by the drive load. Forces the motor to run faster than any load-speed with its excitation.

Regenerative Braking

While the back emf is higher than the supply voltage. Which turns the armature of the motor in the opposite direction to the moving direction. Thus the motor starts functioning as an electric generator.

We note that this system regenerative braking can be done not to stop the motor but to control its speed above the no-load speed of the motor running the descending loads.

2.Dynamic Braking Or Rheostat braking

This system is also known as rheostat braking. Thus the DC motor man joins the braking resistor armature immediately after it is disconnected from the power system. The motor now acts as a generator and produces the torque required for braking.

Dynamic Braking

When the motor acts as a generator during electric braking, the kinetic energy and the connected load in the moving part of the motor are converted into electrical energy.

Dynamic braking is not a good method of braking because all the energy generated is dissipated as heat in radiation resistance.

3.Plugging Or Reverse Current Braking

This method is also known as reverse current braking. In this, the connection of the armature is reversed. Which causes the motor to rotate in the opposite direction to the current. Rotating the no ends of the armature causes the given voltage and emf to continue working in the same direction. Therefore the armature current has increased. This armature is connected around a variable resistor armature to control the current.

This system is the same for both series and shunt-wound methods.
Plugging gives more braking torque. Compared to Dynamic Braking, this system is usually used for heavy-lift in machine tools or for the control of the machine from the printing press.

 

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