What is Electric Motor? | Different Types of Electric Motors

Types of Electric Motors

 

Electric motors are very important in today’s life. In everyday life, we are using motors somewhere knowingly or unknowingly. There are many types of motors available in the market. But we choose the motor based on its application and voltage. Each motor has two important parts. One is the stator (field winding) and the other is the rotor (armature winding).

The main function of the stator winding is to create a fixed magnetic field in it while the rotor is placed inside it. Due to the magnetic field, the armature winding uses energy to generate enough torque to bend the motor shaft. In today’s article, we will see how many types of motors there are and much more about them.

What is Electric Motor?

Definition: A motor is nothing but an electro-mechanical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In other words, the device that produces the power of rotation is called a motor. The working principle of an electric motor depends mainly on the interaction of the magnetic and electric fields.

Electric motors are divided into three types one is an AC motor the other is a DC motor and the third is a special type motor thus AC type motor takes alternating current as input current, while a DC motor takes direct current flow.

Types of Electric Motors:

The electric motor is divided into three main sections as follows:

  1. AC Motor.
  2. DC Motor.
  3. Special-Purpose Motors.

Types Of electric motor

#1. AC Motors:

AC Motor

Within the type of AC motor are mainly included synchronous, asynchronous, induction motors.

#1.1. Synchronous Motor:

The function of this motor mainly depends on 3 phases. Field current is generated by the stator inside this motor. Which rotates at a constant speed depending on the AC frequency. In this, the stator and rotor depend on the same speed as the current. There is no air gap of any kind between the stator current and the speed of the rotor. The accuracy of rotation in this motor is very high. That is why these motors are used extensively, especially in robotics and automation.

#1.2. Induction Motor:

A motor that runs at an unequal speed is known as an induction motor. Another name for this motor is the asynchronous motor. This motor is mainly used to convert electric energy into mechanical energy. This motor operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This motor is divided into two sections depending on the construction of the rotor. Such as squirrel cage & phase wound.

Also Read: Difference Between AC Motor And DC Motor

#2. DC Motor:

DC Motor

DC motors are classified into 5 main types as follows:

  • DC Shunt Motor.
  • Separately Excited Motor.
  • DC Series Motor.
  • PMDC Motor.
  • DC Compound Motor.

#2.1. DC Shunt Motor:

A motor whose field winding and armature winding are connected in parallel is known as a shunt motor. Another name for this motor is the shunt wound DC motor in which the type of winding is known as shunt winding. DC Shunt Motor operates only on DC.

#2.2. Separately Excited Motor:

The motor which is connected to the stator and rotor of the motor using a separate power supply is known as Separately Excited Motor. So that the shunt of the motor can be controlled and the armature winding is strengthened to produce flux.

Also Read: What Is DC Generator | Types Of DC Generator

#2.3. DC Series Motor:

In DC Series Motor the rotor windings are connected in series. The working principle of this motor depends on the electromagnetic law. And according to this rule, whenever a magnetic field can be formed around the conductor, an external field is used to gain rotation speed. These motors are mainly used in starter motors used in elevators and cars.

#2.4 PMDC Motor:

The full name of PMDC Motor is “Permanent Magnet DC motor”. This is a type of DC motor in which the electric motor can be composed of a permanent magnet to make the magnetic field necessary for operation.

#2.5. DC Compound Motor:

The DC compound motor is a conical component of the DC series motor to the DC shunt motor. Both shunt and series fields are present inside this motor. In such a motor the stator and rotor can be connected to each other by combining series and shunt windings.

The series windings are made of thick copper wire. So that the windings are reduced. Which gives way to a small resistance. To obtain a full I / p voltage, the shunt winding can be designed with multiple windings of copper wire.

Also Read: What Is a Motor Starter? | Types of Motor Starters | Advantage of Motor Starter

#3. Special-Purpose Motors:

Special Purpose Motor

Special Purpose Motors includes the following motors:

  • Stepper Motor.
  • Brushless DC Motors.
  • Hysteresis Motor.
  • Reluctance Motor.
  • Universal Motor.

#3.1. Stepper Motor:

Stepper Motor was invented for the purpose of progress. Has been done to offer a step angle revolution. We all know that the perfect revolution angle for a normal rotor is 180 degrees. However, for a normal stepper motor, the full revolution angle is 10 degrees x 18 steps. Can be varied in countless steps.

This means that the rotor will move 18 times at a rate of 10 degrees for a complete rotation. This motor is used in plotters, circuit fabrication, process control equipment.

#3.2. Brushless DC Motors:

Brushless DC Motors were invented for excellent performance in less space than a brushless motor. This motor is less compared to the AC motor model. A controller is embedded in the electric motor to facilitate the process within the absence of a commutator and slip ring.

#3.3. Hysteresis Motor:

The operation of the hysteresis motor is of a very unique type. The force required for the operation of this motor is obtained by hysteresis and eddy current. Whether the motor will operate on single-phase or three-phase depends on its construction.

This motor also offers very easy operation with constant speed like the asynchronous motor. This motor works very quietly without any kind of noise. That is why it is used in many complex applications such as sound players, audio recorder, etc.

#3.4. Reluctance Motor:

Reluctance Motor is a type of single-phase synchronous motor. The construction of this motor is similar to that of an induction motor. The design of the rotor is similar to that of a squirrel cage. And the motor includes the main winding and auxiliary winding inside the stator. Auxiliary windings are useful in starting the motor.

As they offer a level offer operation at a steady pace. These motors are commonly used in synchronization applications including signal generators, recorders, etc.

#3.5. Universal Motor:

Universal Motor is a special type of motor. It operates on a single-phase AC or DC supply. Universal motors are a series of wounds in which the field and armature windings are connected in series. And thus generates a high starting torque. This motor is mainly designed to run at speeds above 3500 RPM. They use AC supply in low speed and same voltage DC supply.

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