We all know that capacitor is a reactive component. Which is used in analog electronic filters. Because the capacitor acts as an impedance frequency. The capacitor can affect the signal depending on the frequency. Therefore this property is widely used in the design of filters. An analog electronic filter such as LPF can be used to perform the function of predefined signal processing.
The main function of the filter capacitor is to allow low frequency and block high frequency. Similarly, HPF allows high frequency and inhibits low frequency. Electronic filters can be made using analog components such as resistors, capacitors, transistor op-amps, and inductors. In today’s article, we will see what is a filter capacitor? And today we will talk about what is the application of filter capacitors and an overview of the filter capacitors.
What is a Filter Capacitor?
Definition: A capacitor is used to filter a certain frequency. Otherwise, the range of frequency from the electronic circuit is known as the filter capacitor. A capacitor is usually used to filter a low-frequency signal. The frequency value of such signals is close to 0Hz, this is also known as DC signal.
Therefore such a capacitor is used to filter the unwanted frequency. This is very common in electronic as well as electrical and various types of equipment applied in different applications.
Also Read: What Is a Coupling Capacitor | Construction of Coupling Capacitor | Applications of Coupling Capacitor
Working of Filter Capacitor:
The function of this capacitor depends mainly on its capacitive reaction principle. It is nothing but how the capacitance of a capacitor changes with the signal frequency flowing through it. A non-reactive component like a resistor provides the same resistance to the signal except the frequency of the signal. This means that 1Hz and 100KHZ signals flow across the resistor with equal resistance.
Also, the capacitor is different because its impedance or resistance will change depending on the signal frequency from which it flows. This is a reactive device that gives a high resistance to a low-frequency signal and a low resistance to a high-frequency signal using a formula like XC = 1 / 2πfc. Capacitors give different resistance values for different frequency signals. It can also be used as a resistor in a circuit.
Filter Capacitor Formula:
The calculation of this capacitor in the power supply circuit can be done to ensure a minimum ripple at the output. The formula for this is something like C = I / 2f Vpp.
In the equation shown above, ‘I’ is the load current, “F” is the input frequency of AC, and “vpp” is the minimum ripple which may be acceptable as it is almost never possible to create this ‘0’.
Filter Capacitor Circuit:
The Filter Capacitor Circuit diagram is shown below in which the capacitor in this circuit acts like a high pass filter by which high frequency and blocks allow direct current. In the same way, it can act as a low pass filter to allow DC and block AC.
In this circuit, the capacitor is connected in parallel with the component instead of connecting in series. This circuit is a high-frequency capacitive filter. The current flow here will be in the direction of least resistance.
Because the capacitor has a very low resistance to a high-frequency signal, these signals will be supplied by the capacitor. The circuit in this system is a high-frequency filter. A signal like a low-frequency current will not supply throughout the capacitor, as it offers high resistance to a low-frequency signal.
Filter Capacitor Circuit to Block DC and Pass AC:
The capacitor has a very high resistance for a low-frequency signal and this low resistance for a high-frequency signal. That is why it acts as a high pass filter to allow high-frequency signals and block low-frequency signals.
Often both AC and DC signals are used in the circuit. But in some cases, we only need the AC signal and the DC signal is emitted. One of the best examples of this is the microphone circuit in which the DC signal is given to the microphone as input. We need DC as the input to turn on the power in the microphone and we need AC as the input to represent music, voice signal, etc.
Also Read: Difference Between Capacitor And Battery │Capacitor vs Battery
Filter Out the DC Component from the Signal:
A capacitor is used to filter the DC signal. This can be done by pairing capacitors in series in the circuit. The following circuit is a capacitive high pass filter. This involves blocking signals such as DC or low frequency.
A ceramic capacitor with a value of 0.1µF, in general, can be placed following the signal. Which includes both AC and DC signals. This capacitor allows AC and filters the DC component.
Applications of Filter Capacitor:
Some of the important applications of filter capacitors are as follows:
- This is used to eliminate defects on DC power rails.
- This capacitor can be used in audio, IF, or RF filters.
- This capacitor can be connected after the voltage regulator to get the DC power supply.
- This capacitor is used to eliminate radio frequency interference.
- line filter capacitors are applicable to many industrial loads as well as devices. So as to protect the device from line voltage noise and to protect other devices on the same line from noise generated in the circuit.
- This capacitor is used in all types of filters. Which is used for signal processing. The best example of this application is an audio equalizer. It uses different frequency bands to allow amplification for high medium and low-frequency tones.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs):
1. What does a filter capacitor do?
The filter capacitor works to reduce the amount of ripple voltage to an acceptable level. It is important to note here that a network can be formed by connecting a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor.
2. What is meant by filter capacitor?
A capacitor is used to filter a certain frequency. Otherwise, the range of frequency from the electronic circuit is known as the filter capacitor. A capacitor is usually used to filter a low-frequency signal. The frequency value of such signals is close to 0Hz, this is also known as DC signal.
3. Which type of capacitor is used for filtering?
Types of capacitors commonly used for filtering applications of SMPS include aluminum electrolytic capacitors, tantalum capacitors, film capacitors, and ceramic capacitors.
4. What are the limitations of the capacitor filter?
Both voltage regulation & filtering are poor.
5. What is the function of a filter capacitor?
It is used to filters out a range of frequencies from a circuit.
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