Hello friends, as we all know, Transformers do not have any kind of moving parts like a motor. The main function of a transformer is to transfer current and voltage from one circuit to another. There is no difference in the frequency of any species during this process.
Transformers can be classified into two parts depending on the function step sub transformer and step down transformer. The use of a step sub transformer is to increase the low voltage, and the function of the step-down transformer is to reduce the high voltage in stark contrast. Today we will talk about the step-down transformer in its construction and its working principle in its application etc.
What is a Step Down Transformer?
Definition: A type of transformer that converts high voltage current to low voltage current is known as a step-down transformer.
This type of transfer has 2 windings, a primary winding, and a secondary winding. The turns of the primary winding are more than those of the secondary winding.
For example, the voltage used in our power circuit is 230V to 110V, but 16V is required to operate any device. In such a requirement, a step-down transformer is used, which is first reduced to 230V to 110V and then to 16V.
Read More: Difference Between Step-up And Step-Down Transformer
Construction of Step-Down Transformer:
A step-down transformer is constructed using 2 or more coils in the core of the transformer. The energy-efficient transformer uses a ferromagnetic core as it is converted into a magnet using the primary winding and sends the energy to the secondary winding.
A simple method of obtaining a ferromagnetic coil is to find a large-inch steel washer or 2-3 inches of racking yard. Any copper wire is used to make the transformer, but a 28 gauge magnetic wire is excellent for making this.
This is a thin copper wire with insulation coated. To make the primary coil, cover the wire tightly in the region of the washer. Count the turns of the winding and note the correct place.
When the winding of a transformer is complete, keep both ends open for power supply and cover properly with a synchronous heat tube. But when winding, special care should be taken that the turns of the secondary coil do not exceed that of the primary coil.
Read More: Step up Transformer | Construction | Working & Its Applications
Working Principle Of Step-Down Transformer:
The step-down transformer operates according to Faraday’s principle of electromagnetic induction.
In a transformer, mutual induction between two windings is required for transmission. According to Faraday’s law, once the magnetic flux connecting the circuit is changed, an electromotive force can be transmitted inside the circuit, which is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkage.
The induced electromotive force is determined by the number of windings present in the transformer. So this is also called the turns ratio. The increase or decrease in transformer voltage depends on the turn ratios.
The turns of the secondary winding are less compared to the primary winding. The connection of current with the secondary coil is also less than that of the primary coil. So that the induced electromotive force in the secondary winding is less. For this reason, the voltage decreases in the secondary winding as opposed to the primary winding.
Formula Of Step Down Transformer:
The formula of Step Down Transformer is as follows:
Ns/Np = Vs/Vp
In which Ns is the secondary winding.
Np is the primary winding.
Vs. is the voltage of the secondary winding.
Vp is the voltage of the primary winding.
Ns < Np
Types of Step-Down Transformers:
Step-down transformers are classified into 3 types.
|Sr. no||Types of Step-Down Transformers|
1. Single Traps:
Single phase is used to reduce the rating of current and to give low voltage to the input voltage and give output current like 12V AC.
2. Center Phase:
The center tap consists of a primary and a center divided in the middle so that it gives an output voltage with the center dividing like 12v from 0 to 12v.
Multi taps have a lot of tapping in the secondary winding used to get the preferred output through secondary coils like 0 to 12v and 0 to 18v.
Advantages of Step Down Transformer
- The cost is low.
- Sustainability is high.
- Reliability is high.
- High efficiency.
- Provides different voltage supplies.
- Used to lower the voltage so that transmission power generation becomes cheaper and easier.
Disadvantages of Step Down Transformer
The disadvantages of step-down transformers are as follows:
- Maintenance requires more.
- It takes a long time to fix any fault.
- Volatility in feedstock costs.
Applications of Step-Down Transformer
The applications of step-down transformers are as follows:
- Power distribution network.
- In welding machines.
- Home appliances.
- Electrical isolation.
- Voltage stabilizers.
- CD players.
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