Hello friends, in today’s article we will talk about solar cells, what are its construction, what is their working principle, and its advantages and disadvantages, and their uses.
As we know, the design of solar panels is made using many solar cells. The main function of a solar cell is to generate electricity based on its capacity. Because each cell in the solar panel is working independently in its own way. So by collecting electricity from each cell, solar panels generate electricity.
Solar panels are used to run electrical appliances used in the home. When more than one panel is assembled and connected, it is known as a solar array. In this array, electricity from each panel can be transmitted to the inverter. So this inverter converts electricity from DC to AC for use in homes. Solar energy is not possible without the proper design of solar cells.
What is a Solar Cell?
Definition: Solar panels have an important component known as a solar cell or PV cell. Solar cells play a vital role in converting solar energy into electrical energy. Which is known as the PV effect. Solar cells exposed to sunlight will see changes in electrical characteristics such as voltage, resistance, and current.
Solar panels are made by connecting several solar cells. A solar cell has the capacity to produce an estimated voltage of 0.5 volts to 0.6 volts.
Construction of Solar Cell:
The construction diagram of a solar cell is as follows. In which there is anti-reflective cover glass in the part of the layer above it.
This glass cover protects the semiconductor material from direct sunlight damage. In this cell, small grid patterns with slight metal stripes under the glass are available. So that the top layer of this cell can be formed using glass, metallic strips, and an anti-reflective coat.
The most important part of the solar cell is the space between it which can be formed by the effect of photovoltaics in space. It consists of two semiconductor layers made of P-type and N-type materials. The base layer of this cell consists of two parts.
The rear metallic electrode is at the bottom of the P-type semiconductor and works with a metallic grid that generates an electric current at Pinkle’s level. The reflective layer is the last layer used to reduce the loss of light inside the system. Solar cells use different materials depending on their utility and price.
Working Principle of Solar Cell:
When sunlight falls on a solar panel this plate absorbs it and this light reaches the pn junction. This sunlight photon can then easily enter the junction through a very thin P-type layer. Semiconductor materials are used to attach the properties of insulators and metals to each panel of the solar panel.
Solar energy provides enough energy to the junction to form many electron-hole pairs in the form of photons. This causes the light to break the thermal equilibrium state of the junction. The free electrons in the depletion field can quickly reach the N-type side of the junction.
Similarly, holes in depletion can also quickly occur on the P-type side of the junction. Once the newly formed free electrons come to the N-type side they cannot cross the forward junction due to the possibility of obstruction of the junction. In exactly the same way the newly formed holes once come to the P-type side
And it cannot cross the junction, it has become a possibility of equal obstruction of the junction. As the concentration of electrons on one side increases, i.e. the N-type side of the junction and the concentration of the holes on the other side also increases, this causes the P-type side of the junction to behave like a small battery cell.
The voltage is adjusted which is known as photovoltaic. If we attach a small load to the junction, a small current will flow there.
V-I Characteristics of a Photovoltaic Cell:
Materials Used in Solar Cell:
The bandgap of the material used to make the solar plate must be close to 1.5ev. The following materials are commonly used.
Advantages of Solar Cell:
Some of the benefits of the solar cell are as follows:
- It does not spread any kind of pollution so that the air is perfectly clean as compared to other power sources.
- Its lifespan is very long.
- No one has to spend on maintenance.
- This can be used to reduce large electricity bills
- This does not produce any kind of noise emission.
- It does not use water or fuel to generate electricity. So that both water and wood are saved.
- The easiest way to run.
- The lifespan of these cells is about 30 years.
Disadvantages of Solar Cell:
Just as there are many advantages to this, there are also a few disadvantages as follows:
- Its installation cost is very high which is not affordable for everyone.
- Its efficiency is low.
- Energy cannot be generated during the rainy season due to cloudy weather.
- It is expensive to store the energy generated by this.
- Prevents excess space.
Applications Of Solar Cell:
The application of solar cells is as follows:
- Electric fence
- Water pumping
- Remote lighting systems
- Water treatment
- A power supply that is portable
- Emergency power
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